2021.12.19 路加福音19:1-10「誰是天國的子民?」


经文 :

创世记12章1-3节;15章5-6节

1 耶和华对亚伯兰说:你要离开本地、本族、父家,往我所要指示你的地去。 2 我必叫你成为大国。我必赐福给你,叫你的名为大;你也要叫别人得福。 3 为你祝福的,我必赐福与他;那咒诅你的,我必咒诅他。地上的万族都要因你得福。


创 15:5 于是神领他走到外边,说:你向天观看,数算众星,能数得过来么?又对他说:你的后裔将要如此。 6 亚伯兰信耶和华,耶和华就以此为他的义。


马太福音3章5-10节

5 那时,耶路撒冷和犹太全地,并约旦河一带地方的人,都出去到约翰那里,6 承认他们的罪,在约旦河里受他的洗。 7 约翰看见许多法利赛人和撒都该人也来受洗,就对他们说:「毒蛇的种类!谁指示你们逃避将来的忿怒呢?8 你们要结出果子来,与悔改的心相称。9 不要自己心里说:‘有亚伯拉罕为我们的祖宗。’我告诉你们:神能从这些石头中给亚伯拉罕兴起子孙来。10 现在斧子已经放在树根上,凡不结好果子的树,就砍下来,丢在火里。


路加福音19章1-10节

1 耶稣进了耶利哥,正经过的时候,2 有一个人名叫撒该,作税吏长,是个财主。 3 他要看看耶稣是怎样的人;只因人多,他的身量又矮,所以不得看见,4 就跑到前头,爬上桑树,要看耶稣,因为耶稣必从那里经过。 5 耶稣到了那里,抬头一看,对他说:「撒该,快下来!今天我必住在你家里。」6 他就急忙下来,欢欢喜喜地接待耶稣。 7 众人看见,都私下议论说:「他竟到罪人家里去住宿。」8 撒该站着对主说:「主啊,我把所有的一半给穷人;我若讹诈了谁,就还他四倍。」9 耶稣说:「今天救恩到了这家,因为他也是亚伯拉罕的子孙。10 人子来,为要寻找、拯救失丧的人。」


主题句:因信成为亚伯拉罕的子孙——天国的子民

1. 亚伯拉罕之约(创世记12章1-3节,15章5-6节)


亚伯拉罕之约奠定了犹太民族的基础。这群从亚伯拉罕作为他们的祖先而生下来的人,世世代代以他们是「亚伯拉罕的子孙」为他们的骄傲。亚伯拉罕的子孙也成为了一个得救的标志。因为根据上帝与亚伯拉罕所立的约,只有真正从亚伯拉罕而生的人,才能够被界定在这个约里面。


2. 神能从石头中兴起亚伯拉罕的子孙来? (马太福音3章5-10节)


施洗约翰在这里颠覆了犹太人对于「亚伯拉罕子孙」的美好幻想。他们以为只要自己身为「亚伯拉罕的子孙」,血液里流淌着「亚伯拉罕的血液」,自己就可以成为上帝眼中的宠儿,成为上帝拯救的目标,成为上帝祝福的对象。没想到,施洗约翰的一番话直接否定了他们几千年来引以为豪的身份。施洗约翰告诉他们,神能够从石头中给你们兴起亚伯拉罕的子孙来。


3. 撒该,他也是亚伯拉罕的子孙! (路加福音19章1-10节)


回顾耶稣的教导:


马太福音中:

• 耶稣还对众人说话的时候,耶稣的母亲和祂弟兄来了,要和祂说话,有人告诉祂说:「你母亲和你弟兄站在外边,要与你说话。」耶稣回答说:「谁是我的母亲?谁是我的弟兄?」就伸手指了门徒说,「看哪,我的母亲,我的弟兄。凡遵行我天父旨意的人,就是我的弟兄,姐妹和母亲了」——耶稣重新定义了「上帝子民」这一群体的定义。 (马太福音12:46-50,路加福音8章19-21节)——不再是凭着血脉,凭着律法,而是凭着信心回应耶稣。

路加福音中:

• 牧羊人作为社会边缘人群的第一个代表,最先听到福音;(路 2)

• 耶稣说:西顿的撒勒法的寡妇,和叙利亚的乃曼,是蒙上帝喜悦和救赎的。那些自以为是上帝子民的人气得要把耶稣推下山崖。 (路 3-4)

• 耶稣呼召利未,利未是一个税吏,在当时,税吏、罪人、和异族外邦人被视为同一群人。 (路 5:27-31)

• 在路加福音的平原宝训里:耶稣说:贫穷的人有福了;饥饿的人有福了;哀哭的人有福了;被憎恨、被拒绝、被辱骂的人有福了;相反,富足的人有祸了;饱足的人有祸了;喜笑的人有祸了;(路 6:17-26)

• 路 10:29-37:好撒马利亚人的比喻——被鄙视的撒玛利亚人蒙神称赞;

• 路 14:16-24:大宴席的比喻;——快出去,到城里大街小巷,领那贫穷的、残废的、瞎眼的、瘸腿的来。 ——上帝的救恩为失丧者而来。

• 路 18:1-8:可怜的寡妇得蒙恩典。

• 路 18:9-14:自以为是的法利赛人不讨神喜悦;痛心认罪悔改的税吏合神心意,得到救恩。

• 作为耶稣旅行布道的高潮:耶稣指着撒该说:今天救恩临到了这家,因为祂也是亚伯拉罕的子孙。 (路加福音19章9-10节)

• 接着19:10成为路加福音的关键经节:人子来,为要寻找、拯救失丧的人。

• 最终耶稣走上了十字架:其中一个强盗向耶稣认罪,说,耶稣啊,你得国降临的时候,求你纪念我!耶稣对他说:我实实在在地告诉你,今日你要同我在乐园里了。 (路加福音23:42-43)耶稣在十字架上即将死去的瞬间,仍然在寻找和拯救被丢弃的、失丧的人。

• 十字架,永远是失丧之人的荣耀;永远是蒙恩的罪人的荣耀;耶稣基督死在十字架上,意味着上帝的救恩借着十字架而得以成就。


4. 总结:因信成为亚伯拉罕的子孙——天国的子民(罗马书14章13-25节)


因为神应许亚伯拉罕和他后裔,必得承受世界,不是因律法,乃是因信而得的义。

若是属乎律法的人才得为后嗣,信就归于虚空,应许也就废弃了。因为律法是惹动忿怒的;那里没有律法,那里就没有过犯。


所以人得为后嗣是本乎信,因此就属乎恩,叫应许定然归给一切后裔;不但归给那属乎律法的,也归给那效法亚伯拉罕之信的。亚伯拉罕所信的,是那叫死人复活、使无变为有的神,他在主面前作我们世人的父。如经上所记:我已经立你作多国的父。


他在无可指望的时候,因信仍有指望,就得以作多国的父,正如先前所说,你的后裔将要如此。他将近百岁的时候,虽然想到自己的身体如同已死,撒拉的生育已经断绝,他的信心还是不软弱;并且仰望神的应许,总没有因不信心里起疑惑,反倒因信心里得坚固,将荣耀归给神,且满心相信神所应许的必能做成。所以,这就算为他的义。


算为他义的这句话不是单为他写的,也是为我们将来得算为义之人写的,就是我们这信神使我们的主耶稣从死里复活的人。耶稣被交给人,是为我们的过犯;复活,是为叫我们称义。 (罗马书4章13-25节)


我们如何成为亚伯拉罕的子孙呢?凭着信心。不是凭着基因里有亚伯拉罕的基因,而是凭着我们的心灵里有和亚伯拉罕一样的信心。


以至于当耶稣基督再来的时候,我们就可以以我们的信心为凭据,让耶稣也指着我们向父神说,他也是亚伯拉罕的子孙,让他进入到我们为亚伯拉罕后裔所预备的天国中来吧。

 

Scriptures:

Genesis 12:1-3

1The Lord had said to Abram, “Go from your country, your people and your father’s household to the land I will show you. 2 “I will make you into a great nation, and I will bless you; I will make your name great, and you will be a blessing. 3 I will bless those who bless you, and whoever curses you I will curse; and all peoples on earth will be blessed through you.”


Genesis 15: 5-6

5 He took him outside and said, “Look up at the sky and count the stars—if indeed you can count them.” Then he said to him, “So shall your offspring be.” 6 Abram believed the Lord, and he credited it to him as righteousness.


Matthew 3:5-10

5 People went out to him from Jerusalem and all Judea and the whole region of the Jordan. 6 Confessing their sins, they were baptized by him in the Jordan River. 7 But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to where he was baptizing, he 1fruit in keeping with repentance. 9 And do not think you can say to yourselves, ‘We have Abraham as our father.’ I tell you that out of these stones God can raise up children for Abraham. 10 The ax is already at the root of the trees, and every tree that does not produce good fruit will be cut down and thrown into the fire.


Luke 19:1-10 Zacchaeus the Tax Collector

1Jesus entered Jericho and was passing through. 2 A man was there by the name of Zacchaeus; he was a chief tax collector and was wealthy. 3 He wanted to see who Jesus was, but because he was short he could not see over the crowd. 4 So he ran ahead and climbed a sycamore-fig tree to see him, since Jesus was coming that way. 5 When Jesus reached the spot, he looked up and said to him, “Zacchaeus, come down immediately. I must stay at your house today.” 6 So he came down at once and welcomed him gladly. 7 All the people saw this and began to mutter, “He has gone to be the guest of a sinner.” 8 But Zacchaeus stood up and said to the Lord, “Look, Lord! Here and now I give half of my possessions to the poor, and if I have cheated anybody out of anything, I will pay back four times the amount.” 9 Jesus said to him, “Today salvation has come to this house, because this man, too, is a son of Abraham. 10 For the Son of Man came to seek and to save the lost.”


Main Theme:

Become Abraham's descendants by faith - citizens of the kingdom of heaven 1. The Covenant of Abraham (Genesis 12:1-3, 15:5-6) The Abrahamic Covenant laid the foundation of the Jewish nation. This group of people who were born from Abraham as their ancestors have been proud of themselves for generations to be the "children of Abraham." The descendants of Abraham also became a sign of salvation. Because according to the covenant between God and Abraham, only those who were born from Abraham can be defined in this covenant. 2. Can God raise up the children of Abraham from the stone? (Matthew 3:5-10) Here, John the Baptist overturned the Jewish illusions about the "children of Abraham." They think that as long as they are "children of Abraham," with "Abraham's blood" flowing in their veins, they can become the darling in God's eyes, the goal of God's salvation, and the object of God's blessing. Unexpectedly, the words of John the Baptist directly denied their proud identity for thousands of years. John the Baptist told them that God can raise up the children of Abraham for you from the stone. 3. Zacchaeus, he is also a descendant of Abraham! (Luke 19:1-10) Recall the teaching of Jesus: In the Gospel of Matthew: • While Jesus was still speaking to the crowd, Jesus’ mother and his brothers came and wanted to talk to him. Someone told him, “Your mother and your brother are standing outside and want to talk to you.” Jesus replied, “Who is my mother? Who is my brother?" He pointed his finger at the disciples and said, "Behold, my mother, my brother. Whoever does the will of my heavenly Father is my brother, sister and mother." ——Jesus redefines the definition of "God's People" as a group. (Matthew 12:46-50, Luke 8:19-21)-No longer by blood, by law, but by faith to respond to Jesus.

In the Gospel of Luke: • As the first representative of the marginalized people in society, the shepherd is the first to hear the gospel; (Luke 2) • Jesus said: The widow of Zarephath in Sidon and Naiman in Syria are pleased and redeemed by God. The popularity of those who thought they were God's people had to push Jesus off the cliff. (Luke 3-4) • Jesus called Levi. Levi was a tax collector. At that time, tax collectors, sinners, and foreign Gentiles were regarded as the same group. (Luke 5:27-31) • In the Plain Sermon in Luke’s Gospel: Jesus said: Blessed are the poor; blessed are the hungry; blessed are the weeping; blessed are the hated, rejected, and insulted; on the contrary, the rich are blessed Woe to people; Woe to people who are full; Woe to people who laugh; (Luke 6:17-26) • Luke 10:29-37: The parable of the good Samaritan-the despised Samaritan is praised by God; • Luke 14:16-24: The parable of the big banquet; ——Quickly go out to the streets and alleys of the city, and bring the poor, disabled, blind, and lame. -God's salvation comes for the lost. • Luke 18:1-8: The poor widow receives grace. • Luke 18:9-14: The self-righteous Pharisees are not pleasing to God; the tax collectors who confess their sins and repent of their hearts are in accord with God's will and are saved. • As the culmination of Jesus' travel preaching: Jesus pointed to Zacchaeus and said: Today salvation has come to this house, because he is also the son of Abraham. (Luke 19:9-10) • Then 19:10 became the key verse of Luke's Gospel: For the Son of Man came to seek and to save the lost.

• Finally Jesus walked on the cross: One of the robbers confessed to Jesus and said, “Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom.” Jesus answered him, “Truly I tell you, today you will be with me in paradise.” (Luke 23:42-43) When Jesus was about to die on the cross, he was still looking for and saving the forsaken and lost. • The cross is always the glory of the lost; it is always the glory of graceful sinners; the death of Jesus Christ on the cross means that God's salvation is accomplished through the cross. 4. Summary: Become Abraham's descendants by faith—people of the kingdom of heaven (Romans 14:13-25) Because God promised that Abraham and his descendants would inherit the world, not because of the law, but because of righteousness through faith.

If those who belong to the law are allowed to be heirs, the faith will fall into nothingness and the promise will be abandoned. Because the law provokes wrath; where there is no law, there is no transgression. Therefore, a man being the heir is based on faith, so it belongs to grace, so that the promise must be given to all descendants; not only to those who belong to the law, but also to those who imitate Abraham's faith. What Abraham believed was the God who raised the dead and turned nonexistance into existence. He is the father of our world before the Lord. As recorded in the Scripture: I have made you the father of many nations. When Abraham was hopeless, he still had hope because of faith, and he was able to be the father of many nations, as mentioned earlier, your descendants will be like this. When he was nearly a hundred years old, even though he thought that his body was dead and Sarah’s fertility had been cut off, his faith was not weak; and he looked up to God’s promise, never doubted because of nonfaith, but was strengthened by faith. Give glory to God, and be confident that what God promised will be done. Therefore, this is counted as his righteousness. The sentence counted as righteous was not written for him alone, but also for those who will be counted as righteous in the future, that is, we who believe in God to raise our Lord Jesus from the dead. Jesus was handed over to others for our transgressions; Jesus was resurrected to justify us. (Romans 4:13-25) How do we become children of Abraham? By faith. Not by having Abraham's genes in our genes, but by having the same faith as Abraham in our hearts. So that when Jesus Christ returns, we can use our faith as the proof, let Jesus also point to us and tell God the Father that he is also the son of Abraham, and let him enter the heaven we prepared for the descendants of Abraham to come in.






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